Mr. L. Oliphant's new work "Land of Gilead"attracts considerable attention. Reviews appeared some time since, but
we had to lay the subject aside until now for lack of space. We will now
have something to say, not of the work itself though justice can hardly
be sufficiently done to the writings of that clever author but of what
he tells us respecting the Druses those mystics of Mount Lebanon of whom
so little is known. We may, perchance, shed some new light on the subject.
Druse," Mr. Oliphant thinks, "has a firm conviction
that the end of the world is at hand. Recent events have so far tallied
with the enigmatical prophecies of his sacred books, that he looks forward
to the speedy resurrection of El Hakim, the founder and divine personage
of the sect. In order to comprehend this, the connection between China
and Druse theology has to be remembered. The souls of all pious Druses
are supposed to be occupying in large numbers certain cities in the west
of China. The end of the world will be signalised by the approach of a
mighty army from the East against the contending powers of Islam and Christianity.
This army will be under the command of the Universal Mind, and will
consist of millions of Chinese Unitarians. To it Christians and Mahomedans
will surrender and march before it to Mecca. El Hakim will then appear;
at his command, the Caaba will be demolished by fire from Heaven, and the
resurrection of the dead will take place. Now that Russia has come into
collision with China, the Druses see the fulfilment of their sacred prophecies,
and are eagerly waiting for an Armageddon in which they believe themselves
destined to play a prominent part." (Pioneer.)
Mr. Lawrence Oliphant is, in our opinion, one of England's pest writers.
He is also more deeply acquainted with the inner life of the East than most
of the authors and travellers who have written upon the subject not even
excepting Captain and Mrs. Burton. But even his acute and observing intellect
could hardly . fathom the secret of the profoundly mystical beliefs of the
Druses. To begin with: El Hakim is not the founder of their sect.
Their ritual and dogmas were never made known, but to those who have
been admitted into their brotherhood. Their origin is next to unknown. As
to their external religion, or what has rather transpired of it, that can
be told in a few words. The Druses are believed to be a mixture of Kurds,
Mardi-Arabs, and other semi-civilized tribes. We humbly maintain that they
are the descendants of, and a mixture of, mystics of all nations mystics,
who, in the face of cruel and unrelenting persecution by the orthodox Christian
Church and orthodox Islamism, have ever since the first centuries of the
Mahomedan propaganda, been gathered together, and who gradually made a permanent
settlement in the fastnesses of Syria and Mount Lebanon, where they had
from the first found refuge. Since then, they have preserved the strictest
silence upon their beliefs and truly occult rites. Later on, their warlike
character, great bravery, and unity of purpose which made their foes, whether
Mussulmans or Christians, equally fear them, helped them toward forming
an independent community, or, as we may term it, an imperium in imperio. They are the Sikhs of Asia Minor, and their polity offers many points
of similarity with the late "commonwealth" of the followers of
Guru Nanak even extending to their mysticism and indomitable bravery. But
the two are still more closely related to a third and still more mysterious
community of religionists, of which nothing, or next to nothing, is known
by outsiders: we mean that fraternity of Tibetan Lamaists, known as the
Brotherhood of Khe-lang, who mix but little with the rest. Even Csomo de
Koros, who passed several years with the Lamas learned hardly more of the
religion of these Chakravartins (wheel-turners) than what they chose to let him know of their exoteric rites; and of the Khe-langs,
he learned positively nothing.
The mystery that hangs over the scriptures and
religion of the Druses is far more impenetrable than that connected with
the Amritsar and Lahore "Disciples," whose grantha is well
known, and has been translated into European languages more than once. Of
the alleged forty-five sacred books1 of the
Lebanon mystics, none were ever seen, let alone examined, by any European
scholar. Many manuscripts have never left the underground Holoweys (place
of religious meeting) invariably built under the meeting-room on the ground-floor,
and the public Thursday assemblies of the Druses are simply blinds intended
for over-curious travellers and neighbours.
Verily a strange sect are the "Disciples of H'amsa," as they
call themselves. Their Okhal or spiritual teachers besides having,
like the Sikh Akali, the duty of defending the visible place
of worship, which is merely a large, unfurnished room, are also the p,uardians
of the Mystical Temple, and the "wise men," or the initiates of their mysteries, as their name of Okhal implies: Akl being
in Arabic "intelligence" or "wisdom." It is improper
to call them Druses, as they regard it as an insult; nor are they in reality
the followers of Daruzi, a heretical pupil of H'amsa, but
the true disciples of the latter. The origin of that personage who appeared
among them in the eleventh century, coming from Central Asia, and whose
secret or "mystery" name is "El-Hamma,"
is quite unknown to our European scholars. His spiritual titles are "Universal
Source, or Mind," "Ocean of Light," and "Absolute or
Divine Intelligence." They are, in short. repetitions of those of the
Tibetan Dalai-Lama, whose appellation "Path to the Ocean,"2 means, Path or "Way to the Ocean of Light"
(Intelligence) or Divine Wisdom both titles being identically the same.
It is curious that the Hebrew word Lamad should also mean "the
An English Orientalist recently found that the religion of Nanak had
a good deal of Buddhism in it. (Art. Diwali in Calcutta Review.) This would be only natural since the Empire of Hindustan is the land
of Buddhas and Boddhisattvas. But that the religion of the Druses, between
whose geographical and ethnological position and that of the Hindus there
is an abyss, should be so, is far more incomprehensible and strange. Yet
it is a fact. They are more Lamaists in their beliefs and certain rites,
than any other people upon the face of the globe. The fact may be contradicted,
but it will be only because Europe knows next to nothing of either. Their
system of government is set down as feudal and Satriarchal, while it is
as theocratic as that of the Lamaists or as that of the Sikhs as it used
to be. The mysterious representation of the Deity appears in H'amsa, whose
spirit is said to guide them, and periodically re-incarnate itself in the
person of the chief Okhal of the Druses, as it does in the Guru-Kings
of the Sikhs, some of whom, like Guru Govind, claimed to be the re-incarnations
of Nanak, while the Dalai-Lamas of Tibet claim to be those of Buddha. The
latter, by the way, are loosely called Shaberons and Khubilghans (both in various degrees re-incarnations not of Buddha, the MAN,
but of his Buddh-like divine spirit) by Abbe Huc and others without any
regard to the difference in the appellation: El Hamma or H'amsa came from
the "Land of the Word of God." Where was that land? Swedenborg,
the Northern seer, advised his followers to search for the LOST WORD, among the hierophants of
Tartary, Tibet and China. To this we may add a few explanatory and corroborative
facts. Ll'hassa, the theocratic metropolis of Tibet,
is commonly translated as "God-land," that is to say, this is
the only English equivalent that we can find.3 Though separated by the Karakonum range and little Tibet, the great Tibet
is on the same Asiatic plateau in which our Biblical scholars designate
the table-land of Pamir4 as the cradle of
the human race, the birth-place of the mythical Adam. Tibet or Ti-Boutta,
will yield, etymologically, the words Ti, which is the equivalent
for God in Chinese, and Buddha, or wisdom: the land, then,
of the Wisdom-Deity, or of the incarnations of Wisdom. It is also called
"Bod-Jid." Now "Jid" and "Jod" are synonymous
apocalyptic and phallic names for the Deity YOD being the Hebrew name for God. G. Higgins shows in his Celtic
Druids, the Welsh Druids altering the name of Bod-Jid into Buddud
which with them too meant the "Wisdom of Jid" or what people now
The religion of the Druses is said to be a compound of Judaism, Mahomedanism
and Christianity, strongly tinged with Gnosticism and the Magian system
of Persia. Were people to call things by their right names, sacrificing
all self-conceit to truth, they might confess things otherwise. They could
say, for instance, that Mahomedanism being a compound of Chaldeism, Christianity
and Judaism; Christianity, a mixture of Judaism, Gnosticism and Paganism;
and Judaism, a wholesale Egypto-Chaldean Kabalism, masquerading under invented
names and fables, made to fit the bits and scraps of the real history of
the Israelite tribes the religious system of the Druses would then be found
one of the last survivals of the archaic Wisdom-Religion. It is entirely
based on that element of practical mysticism of which branches have from
time to time sprung into existence. They pass under the unpopular names
of Kabalism, Theosophy and Occultism. Except Christianity which, owing to
the importance it gives to the principal prop of its doctrine of Salvation (we
mean the dogma of Satan) had to anathematize the practice of theurgy every
religion, including Judaism and Mahomedanism, credits these above-named
branches. Civilisation having touched with its materialistic all-levelling,
and all-destroying hand even India and Turkey, amid the din and chaos of
crumbling faiths and old sciences, the reminiscence of archaic truths is
now fast dying out. It has become popular and fashionable to denounce "the
old and mouldy superstitions of our forefathers"; verily even
among the most natural allies of the students of theurgy or occultism the
Spiritualists. Among the many creeds and faiths striving to follow the cyclic
tide, and helping it themselves to sweep away the knowledge of old, strangely
blind to the fact, that the same powerful wave of materialism and modern
science also sweeps away their own foundations the only religions which
have remained as alive as ever to these forgotten truths of old, are those which from the first have kept strictly aloof from
the rest. The Druses, while outwardly mixing up with Moslems and Christians
alike, ever ready to read the Kuran as well as the Gospels in their Thursday
public meetings, have never allowed an uninitiated stranger to penetrate
the mysteries of their own doctrines. Intelligence6 alone communicates to the soul (which with them is mortal, though it survives
the body) the enlivening and divine spark of the Supreme Wisdom or Ti-meami they
say but it must be screened from all nonbelievers in H'amsa. The work of
the soul is to seek wisdom, and the substance of earthly wisdom is to know
Universal Wisdom, or "God," as other religionists call that principle.
This is the doctrine of the Buddhists and Lamaists who say "Buddha"
where the Druses say "Wisdom" one word being the translation
of the other. "In spite of their external adoption of the religious
customs of the Moslems, of their readiness to educate their children in
Christian schools, their use of the Arabic language, and of their free intercourse
with strangers, the Druses remain even more than the Jews a peculiar people" says
a writer. They are very rarely if ever converted; they marry within their
own race; and adhere most tenaciously to their traditions, baffling all
efforts to discover their cherished secrets. Yet they are neither fanatical,
nor do they covet proselytes.
In his Journey through Tartary, Tibet, and China,Huc speaks with great surprise of the extreme tolerance and even outward
respect shown by the Tibetans to other religions. A grand Lama, or a "living
Buddha," as he calls him, whom the two missionaries met at Choang-Long,
near Koum-boum certainly had the best of them in good breeding as well as
tact and deference to their feelings. The two Frenchmen, however, neither
understood nor appreciated the act, since they seemed quite proud of the
insult offered by them to the Hobilgan. "We were waiting for
him . . . seated on the kang . . . and purposely did not rise to receive
him, but merely made him a slight salutation" boasts Huc
(vol. ii. p. 35-36). The Grand Lama "did not appear disconcerted"
though; upon seeing that they as "purposely" withheld from him
"an invitation to sit down" he only looked at them "surprised,"
as well he might. A breviary of theirs having attracted his attention, he
demanded "permission to examine it"; and then, carrying it "solemnly
to his brow" he said: "It is your book of prayer; we must
always honour and reverence other people's prayers." It was a good
lesson, yet they understood it not. We would like to see that Christian
missionary who would reverently carry to his brow the Vedas, the Tripitaka, or the Grantha, and publicly honour
other people's prayers! While the Tibetan "savage," the heathen
Hobilgan, was all affability and politeness, the two French "Lamas
of Jehovah" as Abbe Huc called his companion and himself, behaved like
two uneducated bullies. And to think that they even boast of it in print!
No more than the Druses do the Lamaists seek to make proselytes. Both
people have their "schools of magic" those in Tibet being attached
to some la-khang (lamaseries), and those among he Druses in the closely-guarded
crypts of initiation, no stranger being even allowed inside the buildings.
As the Tibetan Hobilgans are the incarnations of Buddha's spirit,
so the Druse Okhals erroneously called "Spiritualists"
by some writers are the incarnations of H'amsa. Both peoples have a regular
system of passwords and signs of recognition among the neophytes, and we
know them to be nearly identical since they are partially those of he Theosophists.
In the mystical system of the Druses there are five "messengers"
or interpreters of the "Word of the Supreme Wisdom," who occupy
he same position as the five chief Boddhisattvas, or Hobilgans of Tibet,
each of whom is the bodily temple of the spirit of one of the five Buddhas.
Let us see what can be made known of both classes.
The names of the five principal Druse "messengers," or rather
their titles as these names are generic, in both the Druse and Tibetan
hierarchies, and the title passes at the death of each to his successor are:
(1)7H'amsa, or "El
Hamma," (spiritual wisdom) considered as the Messiah, through whom
speaks Incarnate Wisdom.
(2) Ismail Ti-meami (the universal soul). He prepares the Druses
before their initiation to receive "wisdom."
(3) Mohammed (the Word). His duty is to watch over the
behaviour and necessities of the brethren; a kind of Bishop.
(4) Se-lama, (the "Preceding") called the "Right
(5) Mokshatana Boha-eddin, (the "Following")
named the "Left Wing."
These last are both messengers between H'amsa and the Brotherhood. Above
these living mediators who remain ever unknown to all but the chief Okhals stand the ten Incarnates of the "Supreme Wisdom," the last
of whom is to return at the end of the cycle, which is fast approaching though
no one but El Hamma knows the day that last "messenger" in accordance
with the cyclic recurrences of events being also the
first who came with H'amsa, hence Boha-eddin. The names of the Druse Incarnations
are Ali A-llal who appeared in India (Kabir we believe); Albar in Persia;
Alya in Yemen; Moill and Kahim, in Eastern Africa; Moessa and Had-di in
Central Asia; Albou and Manssour in China; and Buddea, that is, Boha-eddin8 in Tartary, whence he came
and whither he returned. This last one, some say, was dual-sexed on
earth. Having entered into El-Hakim the Khalif, a monster of wickedness he
brought him to be assassinated, and then sent H'amsa to preach and to found
the Brotherhood of Lebanon. El-Hakim then is but a mask. It is Buddea, i.e.,Bohaeddin they expect.9
And now for the Lamaic hierarchy. Of the living or incarnate Buddhas
there are five also, the chief of whom is Dalay, or rather Talay, Lama from Tale "Ocean" or Sea; he being called the "Ocean of
Wisdom." Above him, as above H'amsa, there is but the "SUPREME WISDOM" the abstract principle
from which emanated the five Buddhas Maitree Buddha (the last Boddhisattva,
or Vishnu in the Kalanki avatar) the tenth "messenger" expected
on earth included. But this will be the One Wisdom and will incarnate
itself into the whole humanity collectively, not in a single individual.
But of this mystery no more at present.
These five "Hobilgans" are distributed in the following order:
(1) Talay-Lama, of Lha-ssa the incarnation of the "Spiritual"
"passive" wisdom which proceeds from Gautama or Siddartha Buddha,
(2) Bande-cha-an Rem-boo-tchi, at Djashi-Loombo. He is "the active earthly wisdom."
(3) Sa-Dcha-Fo, or the "Mouthpiece of Buddha," otherwise the
"word" at Ssamboo.
(4) Khi-sson-Tamba the "Precursor" (of Buddha) at the Grand
(5) Tchang-Zya-Fo-Lang, in the altai mountains. He is called the "Successor"
The "Shaberons" are one degree lower. They, like the chief
Okhals of the Druses, are the initiates of the great wisdom or Buddh
Esoteric religion. This double list of the "Five" shows great
similarity at least between the polity of the two systems. The reader must
bear in mind that they have sprung into their present visible conditions
nearly at the same time. It was from the ninth to the fifteenth centuries
that modern Lamaism evolved its ritual and popular religion, which serves
the Hobilgans and Shaberons as a blind, even against the curiosity of the
average Chinaman and Tibetan. It was in the eleventh century that H'amsa
founded the Brotherhood of Lebanon; and till now no one has acquired its
It is supremely strange that both the Lamas and Druses should have the
same mystical statistics. They reckon the bulk of the human
race at 1,332 millions. When good and evil, they say, shall come to an equilibrium
in the scales of human actions (now evil is far the heavier), then the breath
of "Wisdom," will annihilate in a wink of the eye just 666 millions
of men. The surviving 666 millions will have "Supreme Wisdom"
incarnated in them.10This may have, and
probably has, an allegorical meaning. But what relation might it possibly
bear to the number of the "grand Beast" of John's Revelation?
If more were known than really is of the religions of Tibet and the Druses,
then would scholars see that there is more affinity, between Turanian Lamaists
and the Semitic, "El-Hammites," or Druses, than was ever suspected.
But all is darkness, conjecture, and mere guesswork whenever the writers
speak of either the one or the other. The little that has transpired of
their beliefs is genially so disfigured by prejudice and ignorance that
no learned Lama or Druse would ever recognise a glimpse of likeness to his
faith in these speculative fantasies. Even the profoundly suggestive conclusion
to which came Godfrey Higgins (Celtic Druids Part I, 101) however
true, is but half so. "It is evident" he writes "that there
was a secret science possessed somewhere (by the ancients) which
must have been guarded by the most solemn oaths . . . and I cannot help
suspecting that there is still a secret doctrine known only in the
deep recesses of the crypts of Tibet." . . .
To conclude with the Druses: As Selama and Boha-eddin twonames more than suggestive of the words "Lama" and "Buddha" are
the only ones entrusted with the secret of H'amsa's retreat; and having
the means of consulting with their master, they produce from time to time
his directions and commands to the Brotherhood, so, even to this day do
the Okhals of that name travel every seventh year, through Bussora
and Persia into Tartary and Tibet to the very west of China and return at
the expiration of the eleventh year, bringing them fresh orders from "El'
Hamma." Owing to the expectation of war between China and Russia, only
last year a Druse messenger passed through Bombay on his way to Tibet and
Tartary. This would explain "the superstitious" belief that "the
souls of all pious Druses are supposed to be occupying in large numbers
certain cities in China." It is around the plateau of the Pamirs they
say with the Biblical scholars that the cradle of the true race must be
located: but the cradle of initiated humanity only; of those who
have for the first time tasted of the fruit of knowledge, and these are
in Tibet Mongolia, Tartary, China and India, where also the souls of their
pious and initiated brethren transmigrate, and rebecome "sons of God."
What this language means every Theosophist ought
to know. They discredit the fable of Adam and Eve, and say that they who
first ate of the forbidden fruit and thus became "Elohim" were
Enoch or Hermes (the supposed father of Masonry), and Seth or Sat-an, the
father of secret wisdom and learning, whose abode, they say, is now in the
planet Mercury,11 and whom the Christians
were kind enough to convert into a chief devil, the "fallen Angel."
Their evil one is an abstract principle, and called the "Rival."
The "millions of Chinese Unitarians" may mean Tibetan Lamas,
Hindus, and others of the East, as well as Chinamen. It is true that the
Druses believe in and expect their resurrection day in Armageddon, which,
however, they pronounce otherwise. As the phrase occurs in the Apocalypse it may seem to some that they got the idea in St. John's Revelation. It is nothing of the kind. That day which, according to the Druse teaching
"will consummate the great spiritual plan the bodies of the wise and
faithful will be absorbed into the absolute essence, and transformed from
the many, into the ONE." This
is pre-eminently the Buddhist idea of Nirvana, and that of the Vedantin
final absorption into Parabrahm. Their "Persian Magianism and Gnosticism,"
make them regard St. John as Oannes, the Chaldean Man-Fish, hence connects
their belief at once with the Indian Vishnu and the Lamaic Symbology. Their
"Armageddon" is simply "Ramdagon,"12 and this is how it is explained.
The sentence in Revelation is no better
interpreted than so many other things by Christians, while even the non-Kabalistic
Jews know nothing of its real meaning. Armageddon is mistaken for a geographical
locality, viz., the elevated table of Esdraelon or Ar-mageddon "the
mountain of Megiddo," where Gideon triumphed over the Midianites.13 It is an erroneous notion, for the name in the Revelation refers to a mythical place mentioned in one of the most
archaic traditions of the heathen East, especially among the Turanian and
Semitic races. It is simply a kind of purgatorial Elysium, in which departed
spirits are collected, to await the day of final judgment. That it is so
is proved by the verse in Revelation. "And he gathered them
together into a place called . . . Armageddon (XVI. 16), when the seventh angel will pour out his vial into the air."
The Druses pronounce the name of that mystical locality "Ramdagon."
It is, then, highly probable that the word is an anagram, as shown by the
author of the "Commentary on the Apocalypse." It means ''Rama-Dagon,''14 the first signifying Sun-God of that name, and
the second "Dagon" or the Chaldean Holy Wisdom incarnated in their
"Messenger," Oannes the Man-Fish, and descending on the "Sons
of God" or the Initiates of whatever country; those, in short, through
whom Deific Wisdom occasionally reveals itself to the world.
Theosophist, June, 1881
H. P. Blavatsky
1 The work presented by
Nasr-Allah to the French King as a portion of the Druse Scriptures, and
translated by Petis de la Croix in 1701 is pronounced a forgery. Not one
of the copies now in the possession of the Bodleian, Vienna, or Vatican
Libraries is genuine, and besides each of them is a copy from the other.
Great was always the curiosity of the travellers and greater yet the efforts
of the indomitable and ever-prying missionary, to penetrate behind the veil
of Druse worship, but all have resulted in failure. The strictest secrecy
as to the nature of their beliefs, the peculiar rites practised in their
subterranean Holoweys, and the contents of their canonical
books was enjoined upon their followers by H'amsa and Boha-eddin, the chief
and first disciple of the former. back to text
2 "Lama" means path or road in
the vulgar Tibetan language, but in that figurative sense it conveys the
meaning of way: as the "way to wisdom or salvation." Strangely
enough it also means "cross." It is the Roman figure X or ten,
the emblem of perfection or perfect number, and stood for ten with
the Egyptians, Chinese, Phnicians, Romans, &c. It is also found
in the Mexican secular calendars. The Tartars call it lama from the
Scytho-Turanian word lamh, hand, (from the number of fingers
on both hands), and it is synonymous with the Jod of the Chaldees,
"and thus became the name of a cross, of the High Priest
of the Tartars, and of the Lamaic Messenger of God," says the author
of the Book of God; "Commentaries on the Apocalypse."
With the Irish luam signifies the head of the Church, a
spiritual chief. back to text
3 And a most unsatisfactory term it is,
as the Lamaists have no conception of the anthropomorphic deity which the
English word "God" represents. Fo or Buddha (the latter name being
quite unknown to the common people) is their equivalent expression for that
All-embracing, Superior Good, or Wisdom from which all proceeds, as does
the light from the sun, the cause being nothing personal, but simply an
Abstract Principle. And it is this that in all our theosophical writing,
for the want of a better word, we have to term "God-like," and
"Divine." back to text
4 There are several Pamirs in Central Asia.
There is the Alighur Pamir which lies more north than either the great
Pamir with Victoria Lake in its vicinity, Taghdumbast Pamir and the little
Pamir, more south; and eastward another chain of Pamir dividing Mustagh
Pass and Little Guhjal. We would like to know on which of these we have
to look for the garden of Eden? back to text
5 The name in Hebrew for sanctuary is Te-bah and Ti-boutta and Tebet, also a cradle of the human
race. Thebeth meaning "a box" the "ark" of Noah
and the floating cradle of Moses. back to text
6 The Druses divide man into three principles:
body, soul and intelligence the "Divine Spark," which Theosophists
call "spirit." back to text
7 Very curiously the Druses identify their
H'amsa with Hemsa, the Prophet Mahomet's uncle, who, they say, tired of
the world and its deceitful temptations, simulated death at the battle of
Dhod, A.D. 625, and retired to the fastnesses of a great mountain in Central
Asia where he became a saint. He never died in spirit. When several
centuries after that he appeared among them it was in his second spiritual
body, and when their Messiah had, after founding the brotherhood, disappeared, Se-lama and Boha-eddin were the only ones to know the retreat
of their Master. They alone knew the bodies into which he went on, successively
re-incarnating himself as he is not permitted to die until the return of
the Highest Messenger, the last or one of the ten avatars.
He alone the now invisible but expected one stands higher than
H'amsa. But, it is not, as erroneously believed, "El-Hakim," the
Fatimite Khalif of bad name. back to text
8 One of the names of Minerva, Goddess
of Wisdom, was Budea. back to text
9 In the Druse system there is no
room for a personal deity, unless a portion of the divine impersonal and
abstract wisdom incarnates itself in a mortal man. The deific principle
with them is the essence of Life, the All, and as impersonal as the Parabrahm
of the Vedantins or the Nirvana State of the Buddhists, ever invisible,
all-pervading and incomprehensible, to be known but through occasional incarnations
of its spirit in human form. These ten incarnations or human avatars, as
above specified, are called the "Temples of Ti-meam" (Universal
Spirit). back to text
10The Hindus have the same belief. In
the "Deva-Yug" they will all be devs or gods. See Lama-nim-tshen-po,
or "Great Road to Perfection"; a work of the fifteenth century.
The author of this book is the Great Reformer of Lamaism, the famous Tzong-ka-pa,
from whose hair sprang up the famous koum-boum letter tree a tree whose
leaves all bear sacred Tibetan inscriptions, according to the tradition.
This tree was seen by Abbe Huc some forty years ago, and was seen last year
by the Hungarian traveller Count Szitcheny; who, however, begging his pardon, could not, under its physical surroundings, have carried awaya branch of it. as he pretends to have done. back to text
11 Buddha is son of Maya: and (according
to Brahmanic notion) of Vishnu; "Maia" is mother of Mercury by
Jupiter. Buddha means the "wise" and Mercury is God of Wisdom
(Hermes); and the planet sacred to Gautama Buddha is Mercury. Venus and
Isis presided over navigation, as Mary or Maria, the Madonna presides now.
Is not the latter hymned to this day by the Church:
"Ave Maris Stella. . . . .
"Dei Mater Alma?" or
Hail, Star of the Sea,
Mother of God thus identified with Venus?
12 Rama, of the Solar race, is
an incarnation of Vishnu a Sun-God. In "Machha," or the first
Avatar, in order to save humanity from final destruction (see Vishnu
Purana) that God appears to King Satyavrata and the seven saints who
accompany him on the vessel to escape Universal Deluge, as an enormous fish
with one stupendous horn. To this horn the King is commanded by Hari to
tie the ship with a serpent (the emblem of eternity) instead of a
cable. The Talay-Lama, besides his name of "Ocean," is
also called Sarou, which in Tibetan, means the "unicorn,"
or one-horned. He wears on his head-gear a prominent horn, set over a Yung-dang,or mystic cross; which is the Jain and Hindu Swastica. The "fish"
and the sea, or water, are the most archaic emblems of the
Messiahs, or incarnations of divine wisdom, among all the ancient people.
Fishes play prominently a figure on old Christian medals; and in the catacombs
of Rome the "Mystic Cross" or "Anchor" stands between
two fishes as supporters. "Dagh-dae" the name of Zaratushta's
mother, means the "Divine Fish" or Holy Wisdom. The "Mover
on the Waters" whether we call him "Narayan" or Abatur, (the
Kabalistic Superior Father and "Ancient of the World") or "Holy
Spirit" is all one. According to Codex Nazareæus, Kabalah and Genesis, the Holy Spirit when moving on the waters
mirrored himself and "Adam Kadmon was born." Mare in Latin,
is the sea. Water is associated with every creed. Mary and Venus
are both patronesses of the sea and of sailors and both mothers of Gods
of Love, whether Divine or Earthly. The mother of Jesus is called Mary or
Mariah the word meaning in Hebrew mirror that in which we find hut
the reflection instead of a reality, and 600 years before Christianity there
was Maya, Buddha's mother, whose name means illusion identically
the same. Another curious "coincidence" is found in the selections
of new Dalay Lamas in Tibet. The new incarnation of Buddha is ascertained
by a curious icthumancy with three gold fishes. Shutting themselves up in
the Buddha-La (Temple), the Hobilgans place three goldfish in an urn, and
on one of these ancient emblems of Supreme Wisdom, shortly appears
the name of the child into whom the soul of the late Talay-Lama is
supposed to have transmigrated. back to text
13 It is not the "Valley of Megeddo,"
for there is no such valley known. Dr. Robinson's typographical and Biblical
notions being no better than hypotheses. back to text
14Ram is also womb, and
valley; and in Tibetan "goat." "Dag" is fish; from Dagon,
the man-fish, or perfect wisdom. back to text